The region around Carlisle has been fought over time and again. The Solway estuary afforded some protection from the invading Scots and, to a lesser extent the River Eden, which could usually be forded except in times of flood.
Originally a Celtic settlement, (the name Carlisle being from the Celtic, Caer lue - hill fort) Carlisle became a Roman settlement during the Roman expansion into the north of England.
Carlisle now stands on the site of the Roman town of Luguvallium.
After the Romans left the Normans built a castle there, first of wood, and then of stone, using the nearby Roman remains as a quarry.
Carlisle was once part of Scotland but it has been in English hands since 1092 and has since served as a bastion against Scots invasions.
In the 17th century the castle and the city walls withstood a prolonged siege and was only forced to surrender by starvation.
Prince Charles’s troops held it for a short period until they were forced to surrender to the Duke of Cumberland in 1745.
In 1568 Mary, Queen of Scots was kept here, a prisoner.
Carlisle was built on the site of the Roman city and the remains of Roman habitation are constantly being unearthed. The marketplace was the site of the Roman forum.
In the 19th century Canal was constructed to Port Carlisle bringing trade and commerce to the heart of the city but its usefulness declined with the building of larger vessels and with the coming of the railways.
Carlisle now stands red and peaceful, a bustling city, a place to linger and discover its delights.
The Citadel became the Court Houses in 1807. The West Walls were built 1122 to 1200 and the Citadel is part of the wall defences. You can walk along this part of the Walls from Town Dyke Orchard car park to the Cathedral.
The museum tells the story of Carlisle's turbulent past and a section of the display is devoted to the Border reivers. The stories of these times are told in sound and in video.
There is a café, information centre and a well-stocked shop including many reiver books, maps and other interesting items.
A visit to Tullie House is essential for all those interested in Border history.
It is an interesting and picturesque building sited in a commanding position.
It was once surrounded by a deep moat. Originally it was a tower and was enlarged to a castle in the 15th century. In 1644/5 it was besieged by Royalist troops and was badly damaged. Parts have been restored and are now occupied. It has an interesting 13th century vault
Map reference 355540
Stands 6 miles to the north east of Carlisle.
Associated with the Graham family
The castle was developed from an earlier pele tower and was originally protected by an outer wall surrounding an enclosed area of barmkyn in which the animals were herded in times of danger.
Open to the public.
Associated with the Strickland family
Associated with the Salkeld and Howard families.
Story of an Armstrong escaping by jumping with his horse over the bridge into the river.
The site of the gallows at Harraby is close by the Border TV studios.
NB There are several different spellings of Harraby.
Perhaps someone knows the exact location of
Foulbogsheil. Perhaps it has been given a more acceptable name!
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